Initial TAGMI Project

Les Programmes de Défis pour le Développement des Bassins entrepris par le Challenge Program du CGIAR (CWPF-BDC)

Since its 2002 launch, the CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF) has become a comprehensive global research effort on water and food. More than 10 years of CPWF research includes 100+ research-for-development projects and the involvement of 400+ partners in international river basins. More than 1.5 billion people live in CPWF basins, amongst whom half of the poorest people on Earth. In Phase 1 (2002-2007), projects focussed on discovering successful water-related strategies for improving food security and reducing poverty. CPWF Phase 2 builds on prior work, and is organised into integrated research programmes involving 5+ projects and partners to address Basin-specific Development Challenges (BDC):

Volta BDC

Renforcer la gestion intégrée des eaux pluviales et des petits barrages pour l'utilisation équitable et pour des usages multiples (http://waterandfood.org/basins/volta/)

Projet V1 : Ciblage et dissémination

Projet V2 : Gestion intégrée des eaux pluviales pour les agro-écosystèmes agro-pastoraux

Projet V3 : Gestion des petits barrages à usages multiples

Projet V4 : Gestion des sous bassins et gouvernance des eaux pluviales et des petits barrages/p>

Projet V5 : Coordination et Changement

Limpopo BDC

Améliorer la productivité et les moyens d'existence pour les petits agriculteurs et reduire les risques en utilisant la gestion intégrée des ressources en eau (http://waterandfood.org/basins/limpopo-2/)

Projet L1 : Ciblage et dissémination

Projet L2: l'Infrastructure à petite échelle

Projet L3: Les systèmes agricoles et la gestion des risques

Projet L4: La Gouvernance de l'eau/p>

Projet L5: Coordination et changement

V1 et L1 Ciblage et Dissémination

Numerous pilot studies and case studies in the Volta Basin have evaluated practices, methods, and tools that could prove beneficial to others, both within the basin and outside of it. However, the question whether an intervention successfully applied in one location has a reasonable chance of success at any other location remains extremely difficult to answer. A consistent finding in pilot studies is that detailed characteristics of the study location – economic, biophysical, institutional, and cultural –all have essential roles in the eventual success or failure of achieving a successful land and water management outcomes. For out-scaling of initiatives it is impractical to collect detailed information at every potential site where an agricultural land and water management (AWM) intervention might be introduced. This project starts with the premise that, while certainty is unobtainable, degrees of certainty are both obtainable, using available information in a systematic way, and useful.

Despite hosting some of the most developed sub Saharan countries, a majority of rural smallholder farmers in the Limpopo basin still live in poverty. The challenge of low and highly variable rainfall together with inadequate technology transfers, inadequate policy and investment context all act to disable successful transitions out of poverty. The CPWF Phase I identified several opportunities to manage rainfall in more efficient and productive manners at field to basin scales. The challenge of successful targeting and scaling out is still a key research and development area to contribute towards the Limpopo development challenges with opportunities to enable transformations of rural livelihoods at a greater scale.

The CPWF Project V1 and L1 projects have thus developed this web-based "decision support" targeting and scaling out tool to map the likelihood that a given AWM intervention will be successful in given locations. The tool is aimed at non-expert users who could use it to identify likely sites where introducing AWM interventions for smallholder farming systems are likely to succeed.

Du processus de consultation

En tant qu’institution coordinatrice, l’Institut de Stockholm pour l'environnement (SEI) avec ses partenaires de recherché a dirigé les travaux de développement du TAGMI à travers une série de rencontres de concertation nationales et locales dans les pays des Bassins en 2011 et 2012 (Volta: au Ghana et Burkina Faso; Limpopo: les représentants pour tous les quatre pays du Bassin a rencontré au Zimbabwe et en Afrique du Sud). Les premières rencontres de concertation en 2011 ont l'intention d’identifier dans le pays les interventions réussies de GEA. Les participants aux consultations ont été invité à décrire comment et à quel point des facteurs variés contribuent au succès ou l’échec des interventions de GEA. Les deuxièmes rencontres, en 2012, ont l’intention de ramasser les réactions au modèle. Le Modèle de réseau Bayésien calculent la probabilité de succès en utilisant des relations probabilistes formulées à partir des réactions des participants. Le modèle, à partir duquel les résultats de l’outil Web sont produits, est une combinaison de données nationales et régionales ; il contient également les opinions des experts issus de nos partenaires de projet dans le bassin. L’implication pour la dernière fois de nos parties prenantes dans cet effort ont eu lieu en août 2013.

Le succès et l'échec des interventions de Gestion de l’Eau Agricole

Les participants aux consultations ont identifié une gamme de technologies, allant du spectre des technologies de GEA basées sur les eaux pluviales aux systèmes d’irrigation complète utilisés dans les bassins de Limpopo et de la Volta. Cependant, ils sont conscients des cas où des interventions de GEA ont été qualifiées de succès dans certaines localités mais considérées comme un échec dans d’autres.

Il résulte des consultations auprès des experts dans les bassins de Limpopo et de la Volta que les interventions réussies de GEA sont celles ayant eu un impact positif sur le bien être des agriculteurs et qui ont été adoptées et utilisées par ceux-ci pendant au moins deux ans après la fin des interventions. Un certain nombre de facteurs influencent le succès des interventions de GEA. Par exemple, les participants ont mentionné les caractéristiques biophysiques d’une localité, les conditions financières des individus ou communautés ciblés, et les réseaux de marché. Les consultations ont révélé que les facteurs les plus importants ayant une incidence sur l’adoption effective d’une technologie ont trait aux facteurs sociaux et institutionnels. Les facteurs de mise en œuvre des projets sont tout aussi critiques : l’appropriation par la communauté, l’implication des parties prenantes dès le départ par la structure de mise en œuvre et une demande claire de la technologie proposée. En outre, l’intervention doit avoir des objectifs clairs et proposer une technologie conçue de manière appropriée.

Les récits détaillé des interventions réussies de Gestion de l’Eau Agricole

Consultation process

In addition to these three rounds of consultation, the project partners Waternet, Witwatersrand University, INERA and SARI collected more detailed information about successful AWM interventions in their respective countries. They used a methodology that combines maps and participation in focus groups (Participatory GIS) to collect a narrative of project implementation and enabling factors that had resulted in a successful AWM intervention. Stakeholders at district level participated in these events and their stories were complemented by community level narratives.

De l’équipe

Dr Jennie Barron is the Theme Leader for Sustainable Agricultural Water Management at the International Water Management Institute and affiliated to Stockholm Resilience Centre. Her research is focussed on agriculture, water management and ecosystem services in the field to meso-scale landscapes for food production, livelihood improvements and agro-ecosystems sustainability. During the initial TAGMI project, Dr. Barron was the theme leader of Managing Environmental Systems at the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). SEI was the institutional coordinator for the V1 and L1 projects. The project was carried out in close collaboration with the other CPWF BDC projects (V2-V5 and L2-L5) with the support of the respective BDC Leaders : Olufunke Cofie (Volta) and Amy Sullivan (Limpopo).

Partenaires de recherche dans le bassin de la Volta

Institut National de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA); Civil Engineering Dept. of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST); Savanna Agricultural Research Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Ghana (CSIR-SARI); Département de Géographie de l’Université de Ouagadougou

Partenaires de recherche dans le bassin de la Limpopo

WaterNet; University of Witwatersrand; International Water Management Institute-South Africa

CPWF Upper East Region, Ghana

Enhancing uptake and socio-economic benefits of shallow groundwater irrigation in the White Volta Basin (January 01, 2012 - April 30, 2014)

Project Leader: Pamela Katic

The project continued the research carried out in the CPWF Phase 1 project 65 ('Shallow groundwater irrigation in the White Volta Basin') in the Atankuidi catchment of Upper East Region, Ghana. This project explored the potential for greater use of groundwater irrigation in the White Volta Basin. The specific objectives of the project were: to identify and, where possible introduce affordable technologies adapted to local conditions, to improve the understanding of the economics of current and potential crop enterprises, to explore interventions that help address the marketing challenges faced by shallow groundwater irrigation practitioners, and investigate ways of fostering and accelerating uptake and adoption of groundwater irrigation in other areas of the White Volta Basin. To achieve these objectives, the project implemented several research-into-use activities, which were grouped into three interrelated and mutually reinforcing work packages:

  • Evaluation of existing irrigation methods and alternative technologies to improve the efficiency of shallow groundwater utilization;
  • Improving profitability and market access: A value-chain analysis; and
  • Improving uptake and out-scaling of shallow groundwater irrigation technologies and management practices.

The project was led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and funded by the CGIAR CPWF program and IWMI.

Location: Upper East Region, Ghana

Technologies: Small Petrol Pumps

Project partners: International Development Enterprises, University of Development Studies, Stockholm Environment Institute.

WLE White Volta Basin

Targeting investments in Groundwater irrigation in the White Volta Basin (May 01, 2014 - June 30, 2015)

Project Leader: Pamela Katic ([email protected])

The project served to test and expand the applicability of the Bayesian-based decision tool TAGMI (developed by SEI as part of CPWF-V1). TAGMI provided recommendations for scaling-up the adoption of a specific irrigation technology. The project carried out specific ground-truthing and expansion of the TAGMI model adapted to petrol pumps for shallow groundwater irrigation (CPWF-RiU project) by:

  • verifying the results of the model with field observations and expert opinions.
  • re-assessing the model structure (Are the lines and relationships accurate? What should change?) and data sources (Are there others to include? What organizations have the data?)
  • exploring avenues for model refinement through additional data sources and spatial disaggregation
  • exploring the potential of the model to other pumping and groundwater application technologies
  • exploring the relevance and data requirements of expanding the model to other areas in the wider Volta/Niger Basin.

The project was led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and funded by the CGIAR Water, Land and Ecosystems program.

Location: Districts of Burkina Faso and Ghana that fall within the White Volta basin

Technologies: Drip irrigation (both), small petrol/ diesel pumps (Burkina Faso) and small electric pumps (Ghana)

Key team members: Pamela Katic, Joanne Morris, Mathieu Chaix-Bar, Kalifa Dembele, Euloge Kabore, Anna Minkah

Project partners: International Development Enterprises (Ghana), International Development Enterprises (Burkina Faso), Stockholm Environment Institute.

WLE Niger in the Niger Basin

Managing water and food systems in the Volta - Niger basins (January 01, 2014 - December 31, 2016)

Project Leader: O. Cofie, ([email protected])

The improvement of TAGMI and development of a TAGMI tool for smallscale irrigation in Niger was one component of the larger project. Extensive groundtruthing of landuse around small reservoirs was carried out in December 2014, to support the development of an improved map of smallscale irrigation in Burkina Faso, to serve as a validation method for the original small-scale irrigation TAGMI tool developed under the CPWF V1 project.

The larger project sought to build and expand on earlier work carried out in the CPWF Volta from 2010-2013. It aimed at improving the management of water for sustainable food production at local and sub-basin levels. The project would produce outputs of: 1) Innovation and learning, including publication of special journal edition and policy briefs. 2) Consolidated knowledge of the historical evolution and resilience of small reservoirs in West Africa documented as a book 3) Recommendations on optimizing the use of small reservoirs for multiple purposes. 4) Recommendations for improving water governance options at watershed level. 5) Improved decision support tool for better targeting investments in agricultural water management interventions (TAGMI). The project was led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), and funded by EC/IFAD and the CGIAR Water, Land and Ecosystems program.

Location of new TAGMI application(s): Districts of Niger that fall within the Niger basin

Technologies: Small Scale Irrigation (initial draft)

Key team members (in the TAGMI development): Joanne Morris, Mathieu Chaix-Bar

Project partners: CIRAD-UPR GREEN, Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Stockholm Environment Institute, University of Utrecht, Volta Basin Development Foundation (VBDF)

Bayesian Network

Le Modèle bayésien calcule un résultat souhaité, le « succès », qui est la probabilité qu’une intervention technologique de GEA introduite dans une communauté cible sera encore utilisée deux ans après la fin de l’intervention du projet (voir le noeud central, Figure 4). En se basant sur les discussions des participants et en utilisant le Cadre d’analyse des moyens de subsistance durables du Department for International Development (Agence pour le développement international) du Royaume –Uni (DFID, 1999), on peut dire que le succès est conditionnel aux niveaux adéquats de cinq capitaux : Humain, Social, Financier, Physique et Naturel. Les ressources humaines sont incorporées séparément comme 6ème capital au regard de leur importance pour la GEA. Chaque capital comprend deux à quatre facteurs (par exemple, le capital humain est la combinaison de la Disponibilité de la main d’oeuvre, Compétences, et Santé). Chaque facteur est décrit par une à trois données variables qui constituent le fondement du modèle (par exemple, la Disponibilité de la main d’oeuvre est indiquée par la taille relative de la population active et du ratio hommes/femmes dans la population).

The linking arrows convey the conditional probabilities of how each node in the network influences the presence of the next node. The model calculates the probability that the factor is present given knowledge about the state of its data variable (high, medium or low), then the probability that the capital is present given the calculated state of its factors, then the probability that Success is present given the calculated state of all capitals. A similar application of Bayesian network modelling to analyse the likelihood of water poverty is explained in detail in Kemp-Benedict et al. (2009).

Bassin de la Volta

The Volta Basin has a surface area of 407,000 km2, covering parts of Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Togo. The TAGMI for the Volta Basin covers Northern Ghana and Burkina Faso, which collectively represent 85% of the basin. The basin's farmers, some of the poorest in the world, generally rely on rainfed agriculture. Annual average rainfall distribution ranges from 2000mm in the south to 500mm in the north. Potential evaporation rates range from 1500 mm in the south to over 2500 mm in the north, meaning that less than 10% of rainfall is available for river flow (GLOWA 2013). Even when rainfall is adequate for cropping, its uneven distribution leads to a high risk of crop loss; moreover, the lack of incentives means a situation where farmers are reluctant to invest in agriculture and water management. Climate change is making already variable rainfall less reliable. Farmers must have access to reliable water supplies. Small reservoirs, locally maintained and requiring no recurrent energy input are a sustainable supply option (CPWF 2013). The most significant hydrological features is Lake Volta, created post-construction of the Akosombo Dam for hydropower, which is the second largest man-made lake in the world. The dam also generates hydroelectricity, ~80% of Ghana's power production, and hosts an important small-scale fishery industry (AgWater Solutions 2012).

basin image

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Bassin du Limpopo

The Limpopo Basin has a surface area 408 000 km2, covering parts of Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique*. The basin supports more than 14 million people in areas of Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Rainfall is highly variable with little run-off available in many parts of the basin to produce crops and livestock (CPWF 2013). Annual average rainfall distribution ranges from 200 mm to 1200 mm, with an average of 530 mm per annum. Potential evaporation ranges from 800 mm to 2400 mm per annum. The Limpopo basin is a relatively dry basin with most of the water in the highly productive areas already used for irrigation. Irrigated agricultural covers 244 000 ha, with the potential for a further 122 000 ha in selected sub-catchments. Dryland or rain-fed agriculture includes crop production (234 000 ha), pastures (1 780 000 ha) and forestry (455 000 ha) (ARC 2013). Prolonged dry spells are common, making rainfed farming in many areas difficult, while occasional high rainfall events result in uncontrolled flooding (CPWF 2013).

* While TAGMI for the Limpopo Basin covers all countries, it is primarily driven by available data and learning events undertaken in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Data for Mozambique and Botswana are derived from publicly available global data sets.

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Agriculture de conservation

Conservation Agriculture (CA) is an approach to managing agro-ecological systems. It is designed to enable sustainable and profitable agriculture while improving farmers' livelihoods. It is governed by three CA principles: 1) continuous and minimal soil disturbance, 2) permanent (organic) soil cover and 3) crop diversification and rotation. CA is scalable, its principles universally applicable to all agircultural agricultural landscapes but its adoption is arguably most urgently required by smallholder farmers. Introducing CA requires that farmers accept a change in their existing crop management system, employ technologies that help manage cover crops, and adopt a new way of thinking with respect to weed management and livestock/cropping interactions. More info from the FAO


l’Irrigation à petite échelle

These are irrigation systems that are developed, owned or managed by individual farmers. They buy or rent irrigation equipment and draw water from nearby sources without depending on public agencies or Water Users' Associations, for example. In many African countries the smallholder private irrigation sector is more important than public irrigation in terms of the number of farmers involved and the value of the production. More info from IWMI

tapping-groundwater image

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Petits Barrages

In most of Sub-Saharan Africa, small reservoirs are earthen or cement dams that are less than 7.5 meters high. They provide significant opportunities for soil and water conservation, drought proofing and for developing small-scale, community-based irrigation schemes. A well-designed reservoir can support multiple water uses from livestock watering, fisheries, domestic and small business water use to brick making and handicraft activities. More info from IWMI

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